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Free People of Color of Texas

 

 

The objective of the Free People of Color of Texas Project is to identify all or as many Free People of Color as possible who resided in Texas prior to the Civil War. While trying to identify those people others born in Texas but residing in states other than Texas have also been identified. Those people are also included in the project.

Texas was a province of Spain from the early 1500's until Mexico overthrew the reins of the Spainish and became the Republic of Mexico in 1821. Mexico then ruled Texas from 1821 until 1836 when Texas became it's own country, The Republic of Texas. On February 19, 1846 the American flag was raised over the capitol building in Austin and Texas became the State of Texas. During the four years of America's Civil War, 1861-1865, Texas was one of the Confederate States of America and reverted to being a state of the United States when the war and Reconstruction ended.

In 1829, during the Mexican period, Mexico emanciapted or set forth a program to emanciapte over time all slaves in the country. A proviso in Province of Tejas, however, allowed slavery to continue, which it did, until the time of the Texas Revolution in 1836.

While The Republic of Texas was built on the concept of slave labor the framers of the Texas Constitution feared and hoped to prevent bloody slave uprisings such as those that had occurred in Haiti and Virginia incited by such people as Veasy and Nat Turner. With their fear that Free People of Color might incite slaves to revolt or be models slave might wish to emulate they legislated that no Free Person of Color was to reside in the Republic of Texas.

What the constitutional framers did not then know was that Free People of Color were already in Texas and were supporting Texas and were enrolled with Texans militarily in gaining Independence from Mexico. As the Republic settled down after the fighting and the people learned Free People of Color were legally unwelcome in Texas the Free People of Color and their many friends, including politicians and fellow soldiers petitioned the legislature for exemptions to the law.

From 1836 until the end of the Civil War Free People of Color were legally discouraged from emigrating and living in the Republic of Texas as well as the State of Texas. While there were never any round-ups of illegal resident Free People of Color many came and lived their lives in Texas. Some petitioned to legally remain.

Like other slave states Texas discouraged emancipation of slaves by slave owners. Like those other states, when a slave owner wished to emancipate a slave he had to apply to the legislature. If his wish was granted he had to post a bond with the local court and the slave had to remove out of the Republic or State or be sold back into slavery. In many cases, however, the slave owner simply emancipated the slave and the slave quietly left Texas for other lands with his "Freedom Papers".

Below is a list of over 250 distinct surnames of Free People of Color who resided in either the Republic of Texas and/or the State of Texas or another state of the United States prior to the Civil War. The final report will also include the names of others associated with them, such as people they lived with or slave owners who may have emancipated them. The associated names, whether White, Black or other may well lead researchers to other information on those named.

A fact that may surprise many people is that many of the Free People of Color in Texas, some of whom are enumerated in the list below, may have never been slaves, nor might their ancestors have been, all the way back into the Colonial period of the United States.

Also, another fact that may surprise many people is there were many Free People of Color in Texas, while they were illegally living in Texas, may have owned slaves of their own. In some cases the slave may have been their own family member but in many cases the slave was no kin at all and was bought at an estate sale or auctions like other slaves.

Researchers descended from or who have information on any of the Free People of Color families whether listed below, or not, are invited to contact Mic Barnette. The main criteria for this project is the person or family was a Free Person of Color who either lived in Texas or was born in Texas and lived as a Free Person of Color in another state or country.

Thank You for your interest,

            Mic Barnette

mic@micbarnette.com

 

Surname

State

County

Ashworth

Texas

Angelina

Bird

Texas

Angelina

Boman

Texas

Angelina

Brisco

Texas

Angelina

Brown

Texas

Angelina

Byrd

Texas

Angelina

Cumea?

Texas

Angelina

Dennis

Texas

Angelina

Ewing

Texas

Angelina

Goodwin

Texas

Angelina

Harthstus

Texas

Angelina

Humphry

Texas

Angelina

Larapetter

Texas

Angelina

Lopez

Texas

Angelina

Red

Texas

Angelina

Smith

Texas

Angelina

Wolf

Texas

Angelina

Wright

Texas

Angelina

Yarborough

Texas

Angelina

Allen

Texas

Austin

Gleckland

Texas

Austin

Rankins

Texas

Austin

Rives

Texas

Austin

Bell

Texas

Bexar

Coffman

Texas

Bexar

Dimesse

Texas

Bexar

Dimmery

Texas

Bexar

Flores

Texas

Bexar

Harris

Texas

Bexar

Jesseps

Texas

Bexar

Sanders

Texas

Bexar

Smith

Texas

Bexar

Thompson

Texas

Bexar

Towns

Texas

Bexar

Diabla

Texas

Brazoria

Drake

Texas

Brazoria

Gautier

Texas

Brazoria

Harden

Texas

Brazoria

Mantellis

Texas

Brazoria

Morris

Texas

Brazoria

Nandes

Texas

Brazoria

Rendon

Texas

Brazoria

Beaucher

Texas

Cameron

Bell

Texas

Cameron

Bouquet

Texas

Cameron

Carr

Texas

Cameron

Champion

Texas

Cameron

Cicero

Texas

Cameron

Clinton

Texas

Cameron

Davis

Texas

Cameron

Franco

Texas

Cameron

Freelas

Texas

Cameron

Gardner

Texas

Cameron

Gillern

Texas

Cameron

Guidon

Texas

Cameron

Haslanes

Texas

Cameron

Haslanes

Texas

Cameron

Huey

Texas

Cameron

Jewett

Texas

Cameron

Jones

Texas

Cameron

Lewis

Texas

Cameron

Maldonado

Texas

Cameron

Mercer

Texas

Cameron

Moore

Texas

Cameron

Piato

Texas

Cameron

Primm

Texas

Cameron

Rio

Texas

Cameron

Smith

Texas

Cameron

Thompson

Texas

Cameron

Wetsler

Texas

Cameron

Woods

Texas

Cameron

Cook

Texas

Cherokee

Hargraen

Texas

Cherokee

Jones

Texas

Cherokee

Moore

Texas

Cherokee

Munkers

Texas

Cherokee

Bailey

Texas

Clay

De La Garza

Texas

Clay

Mitchell

Texas

Collin

Bigel

Texas

El Paso

Duran

Texas

El Paso

Hart

Texas

El Paso

Pescote

Texas

El Paso

Quigley

Texas

El Paso

Randolph

Texas

El Paso

Brice

Texas

Fannin

Johnson

Texas

Fannin

Justus

Texas

Fannin

Williamson

Texas

Fannin

Yoakum

Texas

Fannin

Brown

Texas

Fayette

Johnson

Texas

Fayette

Nash

Texas

Fayette

Sample

Texas

Fayette

Allen

Texas

Fort Bend

Brown

Texas

Fort Bend

Little

Texas

Fort Bend

Logan

Texas

Fort Bend

Martin

Texas

Fort Bend

Martin

Texas

Fort Bend

Mott

Texas

Fort Bend

Nunes

Texas

Fort Bend

Rowley

Texas

Fort Bend

Carey

Texas

Galveston

Carter

Texas

Galveston

Cheesman

Texas

Galveston

Cooper

Texas

Galveston

Ervin

Texas

Galveston

Green

Texas

Galveston

Hall

Texas

Galveston

Hamilton

Texas

Galveston

Henry

Texas

Galveston

Jones

Texas

Galveston

Lee

Texas

Galveston

Lynch

Texas

Galveston

Madison

Texas

Galveston

Pell

Texas

Galveston

Seigler

Texas

Galveston

Townsend

Texas

Galveston

Carr

Texas

Grayson

McKinney

Texas

Grayson

Menefee

Texas

Grayson

Milam

Texas

Grayson

Davis

Texas

Grimes

Ashley

Texas

Guadalupe

Ashley

Texas

Guadalupe

Croft

Texas

Harris

McFarland

Texas

Harris

Mimms

Texas

Harris

Phillips

Texas

Harris

Rutt

Texas

Harris

Sneed

Texas

Harris

Townsend

Texas

Harris

Vince

Texas

Harris

Vince

Texas

Harris

Brewer

Texas

Harrison

Con

Texas

Harrison

Malone

Texas

Henderson

Perkins

Texas

Houston

Wafield

Texas

Hunt

Ayres

Texas

Jackson

Banks

Texas

Jackson

Banks

Texas

Jackson

Furr

Texas

Jackson

Gray

Texas

Jackson

Grey

Texas

Jackson

Hays

Texas

Jackson

Hayse

Texas

Jackson

Lee

Texas

Jackson

Linzy

Texas

Jackson

McCulloch

Texas

Jackson

McCulloch

Texas

Jackson

Mellius

Texas

Jackson

Owen

Texas

Jackson

Rennes

Texas

Jackson

Reynolds

Texas

Jackson

Reynolds

Texas

Jackson

White

Texas

Jackson

Ashworth

Texas

Jefferson

Berwick

Texas

Jefferson

Bunch

Texas

Jefferson

Carter

Texas

Jefferson

Goins

Texas

Jefferson

Joice

Texas

Jefferson

Nelson

Texas

Jefferson

Downs

Texas

Kinney

Chisolm

Texas

Lamar

Setocha

Texas

Lamar

Jorden

Texas

Lampassas

Burton

Texas

Liberty

Duncan

Texas

Liberty

Garcia

Texas

Liberty

Goyans

Texas

Liberty

Williams

Texas

Liberty

Cherry

Texas

Mason

MccCarty

Texas

Mason

Mendez

Texas

Mason

Smith

Texas

Mason

Bell

Texas

Maverick

Cox

Texas

Maverick

Jackson

Texas

Maverick

Towns

Texas

Maverick

Hudson

Texas

McLendon

La Garcia

Texas

Milam

LaSolle

Texas

Milam

Bell

Texas

Nacogdoches

Byrd

Texas

Nacogdoches

Marenis

Texas

Nacogdoches

Morgan

Texas

Nacogdoches

Morrow

Texas

Nacogdoches

Smith

Texas

Nacogdoches

Stiner

Texas

Navarro

McGraw

Texas

Newton

Wilson

Texas

Newton

Wheaton

Texas

Nueces

Ashworth

Texas

Orange

Bunch

Texas

Orange

Jeter

Texas

Panola

Lacy

Texas

Panola

Johnson

Texas

Polk

Williams

Texas

Polk

Brown

Texas

Presidio

Carter

Texas

Red River

Carter

Texas

Red River

Gift

Texas

Red River

Ingles

Texas

Red River

Dunman

Texas

Refugio

Allen

Texas

Rio Grande

Dennison

Texas

Rio Grande

Geitan

Texas

Rio Grande

Instant

Texas

Rio Grande

McFarland

Texas

Rio Grande

McKinney

Texas

Rio Grande

Mitchell

Texas

Rio Grande

Niblet

Texas

Rio Grande

Seasman

Texas

Rio Grande

Smith

Texas

Rio Grande

Stanley

Texas

Rio Grande

Taylor

Texas

Rio Grande

Thornton

Texas

Rio Grande

Wetsler

Texas

Rio Grande

Bolton

Texas

Shelby

Evans

Texas

Smith

Harnage

Texas

Smith

Norris

Texas

Starr

Stron

Texas

Titus

Brock

Texas

Travis

Green

Texas

Travis

Johnson

Texas

Travis

Mabry/Malory

Texas

Travis

Webber

Texas

Travis

Barker

Texas

Trinity

Leary

Texas

Van Zandt

Newton

Texas

Van Zandt

Flores

Texas

Victoria

Johnson

Texas

Victoria

Orista

Texas

Victoria

Ovaldo

Texas

Victoria

Warloos

Texas

Victoria

Stoffer

Texas

Washington

McGuffy

Texas

Wise

Name

State

County

Wright

AL

Green

Questo/Quash o

AR

Creek Lands

Verilla

CA

Amador

Palmer

CA

Del Norte

Brown

CA

El Dorado

Huff

CA

El Dorado

Ashe

CA

Merced

Hall

CA

Merced

Harris

CA

Sacramento

LeGrande

CA

Sacramento

Harris

CA

San Francisco

Shackelford

CA

San Francisco

Ashe

CA

San Joaquin

Bundell

CA

San Joaquin

Dority

CA

San Joaquin

Furgeson

CA

San Joaquin

Maston

CA

San Joaquin

McGee

CA

San Joaquin

No Name

CA

San Joaquin

Richards

CA

San Joaquin

Cooper

CA

Santa Clara

Green

CA

Santa Clara

Burnt

CA

St Stanisclaus

Camara

CA

St Stanisclaus

Davis

CA

St Stanisclaus

Hart

CA

St Stanisclaus

Magee

CA

St Stanisclaus

No Surname

CA

St Stanisclaus

Hoyt

CT

New Hartford

People

CT

New Haven

Cooper

CT

New London

Strong

CT

New London

Weaver

CT

New London

Webb

IL

Cook

Shackelford

IL

Franklin

Derrick

IL

Madison

Moore

IL

Pulaski

Nowell

IL

St Clair

Watson

IL

Will

Ashworth

LA

Calcasieu

Bertier

LA

Calcasieu

Baccus

LA

De Soto

Bourqard

LA

De Soto

Falcon

LA

De Soto

Falson

LA

De Soto

Kelly

LA

De Soto

Shelton

LA

De Soto

Bias

LA

Nachitoches

Cruse

LA

Nachitoches

Davis

LA

Nachitoches

Evervon

LA

Nachitoches

Firseon

LA

Nachitoches

Francois

LA

Nachitoches

Paddie

LA

Nachitoches

Perkins

LA

Nachitoches

Ramona

LA

Nachitoches

Sanders

LA

Nachitoches

?

LA

Nathitoches

Case

LA

Nathitoches

Dannese

LA

Nathitoches

Delvie

LA

Nathitoches

Dennas

LA

Nathitoches

Masqo

LA

Nathitoches

Modeste

LA

Nathitoches

Purcell

LA

Nathitoches

Rivers

LA

Nathitoches

Slivie

LA

Nathitoches

Gilland

LA

Orleans

Dimmery

LA

Rapides

Williams

LA

Rapides

Gibbain

MI

Berrien

Noun

MO

St Louis

Shields

MO

St Louis

Wedler

MO

St Louis

Starkes

NE

Douglas

Johnston

NY

NYC

Willier

NY

Tompkins

Armstrong

NY

Westchester

Harding

OH

Claremont

Cook

OH

Clinton

Harris

OH

Greene

Hewitt

OH

Greene

Alexander

OH

Hamilton

Holland

OH

Hamilton

Houston

OH

Hamilton

Slith

OH

Hamilton

Young

OH

Hamilton

Adams

OH

Loraine

Handock

OH

Loraine

Hendricks

OH

Loraine

Texas

OH

Muskingum

Pitman

OH

Preble

Henry/Herring

PA

Allegheny

Weaver

WI

Milwaukee

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