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Marker-to-DYS Conversion Chart with Mutation Rates

The marker numbers 1-37 really have no meaning beyond their use to more easily facilitate the comparison of test results. However, these markers can be converted into DYS numbers if necessary, as shown in the charts below.

These DYS numbers are accepted as international conventions and are essential if you wish to compare results on this site to results of other DNA studies.See chart on Family Tree DNA website

To more easily record your own marker values before comparing them to other studies or before entering them in other Y-chormosome databases.

Also included in the charts below are the mutation rates for each marker. The fact that the numbers represent the standard deviation of the alleles is unimportant for most researchers. What is important to know is that the higher the number, the faster the rate of mutation.

Knowing mutation rates is extremely useful when comparing results to other study participants.

For example, a mutation for marker 16 - with a slow rate of 0.18 - indicates a significant decrease in the likelihood of a close genetic relationship, since that marker mutates at a low frequency.

On the other hand, a mutation for marker 13 - with a fast rate of 0.95 - is less significant since that marker is expected to mutate much more frequently.

In each of the two tables below, the 10 fastest mutating markers are indicated in yellow, while the 10 slowest mutating markers are indicated in orange. For ease of reference, the tables are sorted differently - the first by marker, the second by mutation rate.

Sorted by Marker Number

Marker

DYS

Mutation Rate *

1

393

0.36

2

390

0.64

3

19 (or 394)

0.61

4

391

0.51

5

385a

0.44

6

385b

1.01

7

426

0.16

8

388

0.37

9

439

0.72

10

389-1

0.41

11

392

0.40

12

389-2

0.76

13

458

0.95

14

459a

0.27

15

459b

0.33

16

455

0.18

17

454

0.08

18

447

0.55

19

437

0.53

20

448

0.40

21

449

0.88

22

464a

0.31

23

464b

0.51

24

464c

0.57

25

464d

0.64

* Source: Kayser, as cited by the Garvey DNA Study

 

Sorted by Mutation Rate (Fastest to Slowest)

Mutation Rate *

Marker

DYS

1.01

6

385b

0.95

13

458

0.88

21

449

0.76

12

389-2

0.72

9

439

0.64

25

464d

0.64

2

390

0.61

3

19 (or 394)

0.57

24

464c

0.55

18

447

0.53

19

437

0.51

4

391

0.51

23

464b

0.44

5

385a

0.41

10

389-1

0.40

11

392

0.40

20

448

0.37

8

388

0.36

1

393

0.33

15

459b

0.31

22

464a

0.27

14

459a

0.18

16

455

0.16

7

426

0.08

17

454

* Source: Kayser, as cited by the Garvey DNA Study